Food Glossary & Classic French Garnishes



1) English/French Food Glossary

2) Classic French Garnishes / Descriptions


1 English/French Food Glossary


À emporter (adj) to go (as opposed to sur place, for here).
À l’ancienne old-fashioned, as in une baguette à l’ancienne.
À point (adj) medium rare.
Abats (m. pl.) offal.
Abricot (m) apricot.
Addition (f) check/bill.
Agneau (m) lamb.
Agrume (m) citrus.
Aiguillette (f) in a bird (mostly duck or chicken), the tip of the breast meat.
Ail (m) garlic.
Algue (f) seaweed.
Aligot (m) potatoes mashed with fresh mountain cheese; a specialty from Auvergne.
Amande (f) almond.
Amuse-bouche (m) or amuse-gueule. Savory nibbles served before the meal, to arouse the appetite.
Ananas (m) pineapple.
Andouillette (f) chitterlings sausage.
Aneth (m) dill.
AOC (f) Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée. A certification granted to certain food items (such as varieties of cheese or produce) made in a specific area, according to a specific production process.
Apéritif (m) or apéro. A pre-dinner drink. Also: a general term for the drinks and savory nibbles served before dinner. It is also a widespread custom to invite people over just for l’apéro, which is a more casual way to entertain than a full-blown dinner invitation.
Arachide (f) peanut.
Assiette (f) plate.
Aubergine (f) eggplant.
Avant-goût (m) foretaste.
Avoine (m) oat.


Baba au rhum (m) a spongy yeast cake soaked with rum syrup, often served with whipped cream.
Badiane (f) star anise.
Bar (m) bar, or sea bass.
Basilic (m) basil.
Bavette (f) skirt steak.
Beaufort (m) firm cow cheese from the area of Beaufort, in the French Alps.
Beignet (m) fritter, donut.
Berceuse (f) mezza-luna; a chopping tool with two handles and two half-moon blades. Literally: lullaby, because of the rocking movement made while using it.
Betterave (f) beetroot.
Beurre (m) butter. Beurre doux is unsalted, beurre salé is salted.
Bien cuit (adj) well done.
Bière (f) beer.
Bigorneau (m) winkle.
Bio (adj) (short for biologique) organic.
Biscotte (f) rusk.
Biscuit (m) cookie.
Biscuit rose de Reims (m) a pink, rectangular ladyfinger and a specialty from Reims, it was designed for dipping in a glass of Champagne. It keeps its shape when moistened, which makes it perfect for charlottes.
Blanc (adj) white.
(m) breast meat.
Blanc-manger (m) a set pudding made with almond milk.
Blanquette (f) a creamy stew, generally of veal, cooked with carrots, onions, and mushrooms.
Blé (m) wheat.
Blettes (f. pl.) also: bettes. Swiss chard.
Bleu (adj) very rare. Literally: blue.
Boeuf (m) beef.
Boeuf bourguignon (m) a stew of beef, red wine, and vegetables; a specialty from Burgundy.
Bonbon (m) candy.
Bouchon (m) cork.
Boudin antillais (m) spicy blood sausage. A twist on boudin noir and a specialty from the Antilles, the French Carribeans.
Boudin blanc (m) a soft white sausage.
Boudin noir (m) blood sausage.
Bouteille (f) bottle.
Brandade de morue (f) salt cod mashed with olive oil and milk until smooth; sometimes made with potatoes, too; a specialty from Provence.
Brasserie (f) originally, a restaurant that served beer (the literal meaning of brasserie is brewery) and a simple hearty fare, often of Alsatian inspiration. The term is now used, more broadly, for traditional restaurants that are larger than bistros and offer a longer menu served around the clock (choucroute, grilled meat, shellfish platters, etc.).
Bresaola (f) air-dried Italian beef.
Brick (f) (alternate spelling: brik) a very thin wheat dough used in North African cuisine, similar to phyllo dough but slightly thicker and grainier.
Brioche (f) a lightly sweet yeast pastry, made with eggs and butter.
Brochet (m) pike.
Brochette (f) skewer.
Brousse (f) a type of fresh cheese from Provence. It is called brocciu when made in Corsica.
Brut (adj) crude, rough.
Bulot (m) whelk.


Cabillaud (m) cod.
Cacahuète (f) peanut.
Café (m) coffee; when ordered in a café or restaurant: espresso.
Café allongé (m) espresso with added water.
Café crème (m) coffee with milk.
Cake (m) a cake baked in a loaf pan.
Calamar (m) squid.
Calisson (m) an almond shaped confection from Aix-en-Provence, made with almond paste, sugar, and crystallized melons, with wafer paper at the bottom and a crisp sugar glaze on top.
Canard (m) duck.
Canelé (m) (alternate spelling: cannelé) a small cake from the city of Bordeaux, caramelized and crusty on the outside, soft and chewy on the inside.
Cantine (f) school or office cafeteria, it is sometimes used to mean a restaurant that has a laid-back and relaxed atmosphere, and where you could see yourself having lunch or dinner everyday.
Caquelon (m) fondue pot.
Carambole (f) starfruit.
Caramel au beurre salé (m) salted butter caramel.
Carbonade flamande (f) a stew of beef, beer, and onions; a specialty from the French Flanders and Belgium.
Cari (m) curry (in créole cuisine).
Carré (m) rack (as in a rack of lamb). Literally: square.
Carte (f) menu.
Carte des vins (f) wine list.
Cassis (m) blackcurrant.
Cassonade (f) a soft brown cane sugar.
Cassoulet (m) a stew from the South-West of France, involving white kidney beans and various meats cooked in goose fat.
Céleri-rave (m) celery root.
Cèpe (m) porcino mushroom.
Céréale (f) grain.
Cerfeuil (m) chervil.
Cerise (f) cherry.
Cervelle de canut (f) fromage blanc flavored with herbs and garlic; a specialty from Lyon. Literally: silkweaver’’s brain (silkweaving was the traditional craft of Lyon).
Chalumeau (m) blowtorch; can be used to caramelize the sugar topping on crèmes brûlées.
Champignon (m) mushroom.
Chapelure (f) dried breadcrumbs.
Charcuterie (f) a store halfway between a butcher’s shop and a deli. Also, the variety of sausages and pork products (jambon, saucisson, salami, mortadelle, pâté…) sold in such stores.
(f) a no-bake dessert in which the mold is lined with ladyfingers, then filled with layers of fruit, and layers of custard or fromage blanc.
(f) a variety of small potatoes, tender-fleshed and sweet.
Châtaigne (f) chestnut.
Chatini (m) créole chutney.
Chaud (adj) hot (temperature).
Chauve-souris (f) bat.
(f) goat.
(m) short for fromage de chèvre, goat cheese.
Chichi (m) an elongated donut similar to the Spanish churro, usually sold by beach-side vendors, rolled in sugar and served in a paper wrapping. Sometimes called chouchou.
Chicorée (f) chicory.
Chipiron (m) small squid.
Chocolat (m) the best edible thing on Earth.
Chocolat au lait (m) milk chocolate.
Chocolat blanc (m) white chocolate.
Chocolat noir (m) dark chocolate.
Chocolatier (m) an artisan who makes and sells chocolate confections.
Chocolatière (f) like a teapot, but for hot chocolate.
Chou (m) cabbage. Chou rouge (red cabbage), chou blanc (white cabbage), chou frisé (Savoy cabbage), chou-fleur (cauliflower)…
Chou à la crème (m) cream puff.
Choucroute (f) sauerkraut.
Choucroute garnie (f) sauerkraut served with assorted sausages and cured meats.
Chouquette (m) a golf-ball-sized pastry puff sprinkled with pearl sugar.
Ciboulette (f) chive.
Citron (m) lemon.
Citron vert (m) lime.
Citronnade (f) lemonade.
Citronnelle (f) lemongrass.
Civet (m) stew.
Clafoutis (m) a simple, grandmotherly dessert in which a pudding batter (usually made of flour, sugar, milk and eggs, sometimes butter) is poured over fruit (most commonly cherries, to makeclafoutis aux cerises) and baked. A specialty from the Limousin region.
Clou de girofle (m) clove.
Cochon (m) pig.
Coco-fesse (f) a coconut shaped exactly like a pair of buttocks that’s unique to the Seychelles and is said to have aphrodisiacal virtues.
Cocotte (f) a heavy (most often cast-iron) pot with a lid.
Cocotte-minute (f) pressure cooker.
Coing (m) quince.
Cointreau (m) an orange-flavored liqueur. (Cointreau is a brand name.)
Colvert (m) mallard. Literally: green neck.
Complet (adj) full (for a restaurant), or whole (for a grain).
Compote (f) a dessert made of fruits cooked slowly with sugar or syrup. Also used, by extension, for vegetables or meat cooked the same way.
Comptoir (m) counter.
Comté (m) semi-firm cow cheese from the Jura, a mountain range in the East of France.
Confit (m) applies to any preparation that’s cooked in its own fat, or cooked slowly until very soft.
Confit de canard (m) a duck leg, salted and cooked slowly, then packed in its own fat. A typical dish from the South-West of France.
Confiture (f) jam.
Confiture d’oignon (f) onion jam.
Confiture de lait (f) milk jam. It is the French equivalent of dulce de leche, i.e. a creamy caramel spread made with evaporated milk and sugar.
Confrérie (f) brotherhood.
Coque (à la) (f) in the shell. Oeuf à la coque is a soft-boiled egg served in the shell.
Coquetier (m) egg cup.
Coquillage (m) seashell, or shellfish.
Coquille Saint-Jacques (f) sea scallop.
Coriandre (f) cilantro/coriander.
Cornichon (m) gherkin.
Côte (f) rib, or chop.
Côtelette (f) chop.
Courge (f) squash.
Courgette (f) zucchini.
Couteau (m) knife.
Crème anglaise (f) vanilla custard sauce.
Crème brûlée (f) a custard-like dessert served in a round and shallow earthenware ramekin, and sprinkled with a layer of sugar that’s blowtorched into a caramel crust just before serving. Literally: burnt cream.
Crème de cassis (f) blackcurrant liqueur, typically blended with white wine to make a kir cocktail.
Crème de marron (f) sweetened chestnut purée.
Crème fleurette (f) also: crème liquide. Whipping cream.
Crème fraîche (f) thick, slightly sour cream, that doesn’t curdle when heated (it’s the fat content, you see…). Substitute heavy cream or sour cream, preferably a mix of the two.
Crêpe (f) large and thin pancake. A specialty from Brittany.
Crêperie (f) restaurant that specializes in crêpes and galettes.
Cresson (m) watercress.
Crevette (f) shrimp.
Croquant de Provence (m) a crunchy almond cookie from Provence.
Croque au sel (à la) (f) a style of eating raw vegetables, with salt as the only seasoning. Used for radishes especially (radis à la croque au sel).
Croque-madame (m) a croque-monsieur with a fried egg on top.
Croque-monsieur (m) a grilled sandwich of cheese and ham, sometimes topped with a béchamel sauce.
(adj) crisp.
(m) any crisp preparation.
Croûte (f) crust.
Cru (adj) raw.
Cuillère (f) (Alternate spelling: cuiller) spoon.
Cuisse (f) thigh.
Cuit (adj) cooked.


Datte (f) date (the fruit).
Daurade (f) sea bream.
Déca (m) decaffeinated espresso.
Dégustation (f) tasting.
(m) lunch.
(v) to have lunch.
Délice (m) delight.
Délicieux (adj) delicious.
Demi (prefix) half- (as in demi-baguette).
Digestif (m) after-dinner drink, usually a brandy such as Armagnac or Cognac.
(m) dinner.
(v) to have dinner.
Doux (adj) soft, or mild.
Droguerie (f) hardware store. Despite the name, does not sell drugs, legal or otherwise.
Droit de bouchon (m) corkage fee.


Échalote (f) shallot.
Écorce d’orange confite (f) candied orange peel.
Écrevisse (f) crayfish.
Épaule (f) shoulder.
Épeautre (m) spelt.
Épice (f) spice.
Épicé (adj) spicy.
Épicerie (f) old-fashioned grocery store.
Épinard (m) spinach.
Érable (m) maple.
Eau (f) water.
Eau du robinet (f) tap water.
Entrecôte (f) rib steak.
Entrée (f) first course.
Escargot (m) snail.
Espadon (m) swordfish.
Estragon (m) tarragon.


Faire moit’ moit’ (v) to split dishes. Short for moitié moitié, which means “half half”.
Farci (adj) stuffed, as in “stuffed zucchini”, not “I’m stuffed” (that would be j’ai assez mangé, I’ve had enough, or j’ai trop mangé, I’ve eaten too much).
Farine (f) flour.
Fécule de maïs (f) corn starch. Also referred to by the brand name Maïzena.
Fécule de pomme de terre (f) potato starch.
Fenouil (m) fennel.
Ferme-auberge (f) a farm-inn, i.e. a farm that also operates as a casual restaurant, in which the farm’s products are cooked and served.
Fermier (adj) farm-made or farm-raised.
Feuille guitare (f) a sheet of plastic that chocolatiers use to ensure their confections have a shiny finish. Literally: guitar sheet.
Fève (f) fava bean/broad bean.
Filet de boeuf (m) beef tenderloin.
Filet de poulet (m) chicken breast.
Financier (m) a small almond cake shaped like a gold ingot.
Fleur de sel (f) flecks of sea salt collected at the surface of salt marshes. Grey-white and slightly moist, it has a distinctive and delicate taste.
Florentin (m) small disks of slivered almonds and candied fruits, baked together in sugar, honey, butter and/or cream, and dipped in chocolate. Recipe here.
Florilège (m) a selection of the best items in a category.
Foie (m) liver.
Foie gras (m) the liver from a fatted duck or goose.
Fondue bourguignonne (f) a type of fondue in which you cook cubes of meat (generally beef) in hot oil then eat them with a variety of dipping sauces.
Fondue savoyarde (f) cheese fondue, made with white wine and cheeses from Savoie, a region on the French side of the Alps.
Formule (f) a limited selection of dishes offered for a set price, usually cheaper than a menu.
Four (m) oven.
Four à bois (m) woodfire oven.
Fourchette (f) fork.
Fourme d’Ambert (m) blue cheese from Auvergne, a mountain range in the center of France.
Frais (adj) fresh.
Fraise (f) strawberry.
Framboise (f) raspberry.
Frit (adj) fried.
Frites (f. pl.) French fries.
Friture (f) something fried. Specifically: tiny fried fish served in the South of France, and the fish-shaped Easter chocolates meant to represent them.
Froid (adj) cold.
Fromage (m) cheese.
Fromage blanc (m) a smooth, unsalted fresh cheese, similar to yogurt.
Fromage frais (m) fresh cheese.
Fruits de mer (m. pl.) shellfish.
Fruits déguisés (m. pl.) literally: fruits in disguise. A traditional Christmas confection, in which dried fruits (dates and prunes mostly) have their pit replaced with a piece of brightly colored marzipan.
Fruits secs (m. pl.) dried fruits. Nuts are sometimes included in that category.
Fumé (adj) smoked.


Galette (f) a savory crêpe made with buckwheat flour. Also: any preparation that’s flat and circular, or patty-shaped.
Galette des rois (f) a puff pastry pie filled with frangipane, which is a mix of almond cream and pastry cream. It is one of the traditional cakes served on the Epiphany, a Christian holiday celebrated on January 6.
Gambas (f. pl.) jumbo shrimp.
Ganache (f) a smooth preparation of chocolate melted with cream and/or butter. It is used in filled chocolates and chocolate tarts in particular.
Gâteau (m) cake.
Gaufre (f) waffle.
Gelée (f) jelly.
Gésier (m) gizzard.
Gibier (m) game.
Gigot d’agneau (m) leg of lamb.
Gingembre (m) ginger.
Giraumon (m) pumpkin.
Girolle (f) chanterelle mushroom.
Glacé (adj) iced, chilled.
Glace (f) ice, or ice cream.
(m) afternoon snack kids are given when they come out of school around 4pm, hence the other word for it, le quatre-heure.
(v) to taste.
Graine (f) seed.
Graine germée (f) sprouted seed.
(adj) fatty, greasy.
(m) fat.
Gratin (m) casserole.
Grenier (m) attic.
Gressin (m) pencil-shaped breadstick cracker, similar to the Italian grissino.
Grillé (adj) grilled.
Groseille (f) redcurrant.
Gruyère (m) firm cow cheese from the town of Gruyères, in the Swiss Alps.


Hareng (m) herring.
Haricot (m) bean. Haricot vert = green bean, haricot blanc = white bean, haricot rouge = red bean.
Haricot mangetout (m) snow pea. Literally: the eat-everything bean (unlike regular peas, you eat the pod as well).
Haricot tarbais (m) white kidney-shaped bean from Tarbes in the Pyrénées. It is the only bean to be protected by a Label Rouge and regional appellation, and can only be hand-picked.
Harissa (f) red chili garlic paste from North Africa.
Homard (m) lobster.
Huile (f) oil.
Huître (f) oyster.


Ile flottante (f) egg whites beaten until stiff then poached or baked, and served in a cup of crème anglaise. Literally: floating island.
Infusion (f) herbal tea.


Jambon (m) ham.
Jambon à l’os (m) bone-in ham.
Jambon cru (m) cured ham.
Jambon cuit (m) cooked ham.
Jarret de veau (m) veal shank.
Joue (f) cheek.
Jus (m) juice.


Kaki (m) persimmon.


Labyrinthe (m) maze.
Lait (m) milk.
Lait de coco (m) coconut milk.
Lait ribot (m) fermented milk from Brittany (laez ribod in Breton), a cousin to the North African kefir.
Langoustine (f) scampi.
Lapin (m) rabbit.
Lardon (m) a small strip of bacon.
Léger (adj) light.
Légume (m) vegetable.
Légumineuse (f) legume.
Levain (m) starter.
Lieu (m) pollack.
Lisette (f) a small mackerel.
Lotte (f) monkfish.


Macaron (m) a cookie made with ground almonds and egg whites. The macaron parisien in particular is made of two delicate meringue-like cookies sandwiched together by a creamy filling.
Mâche (f) lamb’s lettuce, i.e. a salad green that comes in small bouquets of mild-flavored leaves shaped like drops (or lambs’ ears).
Madeleine (f) a small, butter-rich teacake baked in an oval mold that gives it a vaguely scallop-like shape. The dough rises in the oven to form a characteristic bump which is, to some, the tastiest part of the madeleine.
Magret (m) the breast of a fattened duck or goose.
Maigre (adj) lean.
Maison, or Fait maison homemade.
Maquerau (m) mackerel.
Marché (m) farmer’s market.
Marron glacé (m) candied/glazed chestnut, i.e. a chestnut that is cooked in several baths of sugar syrup until meltingly tender. A typical Christmas delicacy.
Mélasse (f) molasses.
Membrillo (Spanish) quince.
Mendiant (m) a disk of chocolate topped with dried fruit and nuts. Also: any preparation (cake, ice cream, chocolate tart…) that involves chocolate, dried fruits, and nuts.
Menthe (f) mint.
Mérou (m) grouper.
Mi-cuit (adj) half-cooked.
Mie (f) the crumb of a loaf of bread. Not to be confused with miettes, crumbs.
Miel (m) honey.
Miette (f) crumb, as in “there are crumbs all over the table.”
Mille-feuille (m) A napoleon, i.e. a rectangular pastry made of alternating layers of puff pastry and vanilla pastry cream, iced with white fondant or sprinkled with confectioner’s sugar. Also: any dish involving layered ingredients. Literally: one thousand sheets.
Mimolette (f) a bright orange cheese from the North of France. It is labeled extra-vieille (“extra-old”) when aged for a long time until brittle and very sharp.
Mirabelle (f) small yellow plum.
Moelle (f) marrow.
Moelleux (adj) soft, mellow. When referring to wine: sweet.
Mont d’Or (m) a soft cow cheese from the Jura with a thicker rind wrapped in pine bark and sold in a round wooden box. A popular way to serve it is the boîte chaude (hot box), in which the Mont d’Or is oven-baked in its box, with a splash of white wine, and eaten warm.
Morue (f) fresh or salt cod.
Mouillette (f) a finger of toasted bread, usually spread with butter, to be dipped into a soft-boiled egg.
Moule (f) mussel.
Moule à gâteau (m) cake pan.
Moût (m) must.
Moutarde (f) mustard.
Mûr (adj) ripe.
Mûre (f) blackberry.
Muscade (f) nutmeg.
Myrtille (f) blueberry.


Navet (m) turnip. Also: a bad movie.
Noisette (f) hazelnut.
Noix (f) walnut.
Noix de coco (f) coconut.
Nougatine (f) a crunchy mixture of caramel and chopped almonds, often used in pastries as a layer or as a decoration.


Oeuf (m) egg.
Oeuf cocotte (m) an egg baked in a ramekin over other ingredients — usually ham and crème fraîche, with an optional topping of grated cheese.
Oie (f) goose.
Oignon (m) onion.
Onglet (m) hanger steak.
Orangette (f) a chocolate confection in which a strip of candied orange rind is dipped in dark chocolate, sometimes with chunks of almonds. Recipe here.
Orge (m) barley.
Ortie (f) nettle.
Os à moelle (m) marrow bone.
Oseille (m) sorrel.
Oursin (m) sea urchin.


Pain (m) bread.
Pain d’épice (m) a honey spice cake, litterally “spice bread”.
Pain de campagne (m) rustic bread. Literally: country bread.
Pain perdu (m) French toast, i.e. slices of day-old bread or brioche dipped in an egg batter and sautéed in butter until golden.
Pain Poilâne (m) rustic starter bread, sold by the Poilâne bakery.
Pain polaire (m) a soft, flat round of bread with dimples from Sweden.
Palombe (f) wood pigeon.
Palourde (f) clam.
Pamplemousse (m) grapefruit.
Panais (m) parsnip.
Panisse (m) a fried chickpea flour patty. It is a specialty from Marseilles, typically sold by beach-side vendors.
Papillote (f) a technique in which ingredients (fish, most often) are wrapped in foil or parchment paper and baked in the oven.
Pâques (f. pl.) Easter.
Patate douce (f) sweet potato.
Pâté (m) a mixture of finely chopped or pureed seasoned meat, usually used as a spread on bread.
Pâte à choux (f) choux pastry. A soft dough made of butter, flour, salt, water and eggs, that puffs up when baked. It is used to make a variety of pastries: chouquettes, éclairs, salambô, Saint-Honoré, profiterolles, gougères…
Pâte brisée (f) a flaky pastry dough made with flour, butter, eggs, and, if it is to be used for a sweet preparation, sugar.
Pâte d’amande (f) almond paste, or marzipan.
Pâte de fruit (f) fruit paste.
Pâte feuilletée (f) puff pastry.
Pâte sablée (f) sweet and crumbly pastry dough.
Pâtisserie (f) pastry. Also: pastry shop.
Pâtissier (m) pastry chef.
Pavé (m) a rectangular piece of meat or fish. Literally: paving stone.
Peau (f) skin.
Pendaison de crémaillère (f) housewarming party. (Une crémaillère is a trammel, the adjustable hook that was used to hang pots in the fireplace; a housewarming party was thrown on the day that this essential piece of equipment was added to a new house.)
Persil (m) parsley.
Pétillant (adj) sparkling.
Petit beurre (m) a crisp, rectangular butter cookie.
Petit déjeuner (m) breakfast.
Petit gris (m) a small snail.
Petit pois (m) pea.
Petit suisse (m) fresh unsalted cheese sold in small cylindrical cartons.
Pétoncle (f) bay scallop.
Pichet (m) pitcher, jug.
Pignon (de pin) (m) pine nut.
Piment (m) chili pepper.
Pintade (f) guinea fowl.
Piperade (f) stewed bell peppers, tomatoes, and onions combined with scrambled eggs; a specialty from the French Basque country.
Pissaladière (f) an onion tart with black olives and anchovies, on a thin bread-like crust. A specialty from Nice, in the South of France. The name comes from pissalat, a condiment made with pureed anchovies, cloves, thyme and bay leaves, which was traditionally spread on the tart before baking.
Pistache (f) pistachio.
Pistou (m) a paste made of basil, olive oil, garlic, and sometimes cheese, equivalent to the Italian pesto. A specialty from Provence.
Plat (m) dish, or main dish.
Plat du jour (m) today’s special.
Plat principal (m) main dish.
Plateau (m) platter.
Poché (adj) poached.
Poêlée (f) any preparation cooked in a skillet.
Poire (f) pear.
Poireau (m) leek.
Pois chiche (m) chickpea.
Pois gourmand (m) snow pea.
Poisson (m) fish.
Poisson d’eau douce (m) freshwater fish.
Poisson de mer (m) seawater fish.
Poitrine (f) breast, or, for pork, belly.
Poitrine fumée (f) bacon.
Poivre (m) pepper.
Poivron (m) bell pepper.
Pomme (f) apple. Sometimes also used to mean potato, short for pomme de terre, as in pommes sarladaisespommes sautéespommes fritespommes dauphines, etc.
Pomme de terre (f) potato. Literally: earth apple.
Pommes sarladaises (f. pl.) potatoes sautéed with garlic (and sometimes mushrooms) in duck fat. A specialty from Sarlat, in the Périgord region.
Porc (m) pork.
Pot-au-feu (m) a stew of beef with carrots, onions, turnips, and leeks.
Potimarron (m) winter squash with a delicate chestnut flavor. Its French name is a portmanteau of potiron (pumpkin) and marron (chestnut).
Potiron (m) pumpkin.
Poulet (m) chicken.
Poulpe (m) octopus.
Pounti (m) (also: pountari) a terrine of pork, swiss chard, and prunes; a specialty from Auvergne.
Pourboire (m) tip.
Note: in France, menu prices include a 15% service charge.
Pousse (f) sprout, or young leaf.
Praire (f) clam.
(f) a paste made of ground caramelized nuts and chocolate.
(f) a chocolate bite filled with the above paste.
(f) a caramelized nut, usually an almond or a peanut.
Praline rose (f) a sugar-coated almond with a pink coloring; a specialty from Lyon.
Pré-dessert (m) an intermediary course served after the main or cheese course, to cleanse the palate and prepare it for the dessert.
Pressé (m) a pressed terrine.
Prune (f) plum.
Purée (f) mashed potatoes, or any mashed preparation.


Quenelle (f) an oval dumpling, classically flavored with pike, served poached or baked. Also used to designate the shape of such a dumpling.
Quetsche (f) an oval plum with purple skin and green flesh. It is similar to the damson plum, but sweeter.
Queue (f) tail.


Radis (m) radish.
Raffiné (adj) refined. Non raffiné means unrefined — whole (for flour) or raw (for sugar).
Ragoût (m) stew.
Raifort (m) horseradish.
Raisin (m) grape.
Rascasse (f) rockfish.
Ratatouille (f) a vegetable stew made with tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, peppers, onions, herbs and olive oil; a specialty from Provence.
Ratte (f) a small, nutty potato, similar to the fingerling potato.
Réglisse (f) liquorice.
Reine claude (f) a round, green-skinned plum. Literally: Queen Claude.
Rince-doigt (m) a moist towelette with a citrus smell on which to wipe one’s fingers after eating seafood. Also: a small bowl filled with citrus water, serving the same purpose.
Ris (pl, m) sweetbreads, of veal or lamb.
Riz (m) rice.
Riz au lait (m) rice pudding.
Rocamadour (m) an individual round goat cheese, produced around the town of Rocamadour, in the Périgord region.
Rocher à la noix de coco (m) coconut macaroon. Literally: coconut rock/boulder.
Rognon (m) kidney.
Roquette (f) rucola or arugula, a peppery and tangy spear-leaved salad green.
(adj) rare, when referring to the cooking stage for duck or lamb.
(m) rosé wine.
Rösti (m) a potato pancake with cheese.
(adj) roasted.
(m) roast.
Rouge (adj) red.
Rouget (m) goatfish, or red mullet.
Rouget barbet (m) red mullet.
Rouleau (m) roll.


Sabayon (m) a sweet, whipped sauce flavored with wine.
Sablé (m) a butter cookie with a sandy consistency.
Sabodet (m) pig’s head sausage from Lyon.
Saignant (adj) rare.
Saint-jacques (or Coquille Saint-Jacques) (f) sea scallop.
Saint-Pierre (m) John Dory.
Salon (m) 1: living-room. 2: trade show.
Sarrasin (m) buckwheat.
Saucisson (m) dry sausage.
Saumon fumé (m) smoked salmon.
Sec (adj) dry.
Séché (adj) dried.
Seiche (f) cuttlefish.
Seigle (m) rye.
Selle (f) saddle.
Sirop (m) syrup.
Sommelier (m) a member of the wait staff of a restaurant who specializes in wine.
Souris d’agneau (f) lamb shank.
Speculoos (m) crunchy cinnamon and cassonade cookie from Belgium.
Sucre (m) sugar.
Sucre de canne (m) cane sugar.
Sucre glace (m) confectioner’s sugar.
Sucre roux (m) brown sugar.
Supion (m) small squid.
Sur place (adj) for here (as opposed to à emporter, to go).
Surgelé (adj) frozen.


Tapenade (f) green or black olive paste.
Tartare (m) a dish that involves a raw ingredient, chopped or diced finely, and seasoned. The most classic example is steak tartare, made with raw beef, but the term is also used for preparations of raw fish or vegetables.
Tarte flambée (f) a thin Alsatian tart usually garnished with crème fraîche, onions, and lardons.
Tarte tatin (f) fruit pie (traditionally made with apples) baked with the crust atop the fruit, but flipped before serving.
Tartine (f) originally, a slice of bread, toasted or not, with something spread on it, usually eaten for breakfast. More recently, a main dish of one or two slices of bread on which ingredients are laid, creating a sort of open-faced sandwich.
Terrine (m) a preparation of meat, fish or vegetables, cooked or assembled in an earthenware dish and served cold, in slices. Also: the earthenware dish used for such preparations.
Tête de moine (f) a wheel-shaped Swiss cheese. It is traditionally served in thin shavings, cut from the top of the cheese with a rotating knife planted in the center of the wheel. Literally: monk’s head.
Thym (m) thyme.
Tiède (adj) lukewarm, or slightly warm.
Timbale (f) tumbler, can be used for any dish served in a small cup, or shaped like a small cup.
Tisane (f) herbal tea.
Topinambour (m) Jerusalem artichoke.
Torchon (m) dishcloth.
Tourte (f) a savory pie with a top crust. Also: a loaf of rustic bread.
Tourteau (m) large crab.
Tourteau fromagé (m) a cheese cake from the Poitou region, traditionally made with fresh goat cheese.
Tranche (f) slice.
Tresse (f) braid.
Truffe (f) truffle.
Truite (f) trout.


(m) an ice cream and meringue cake.
(m) another name for Mont d’Or cheese.
(f) steam.
(adj) steamed (it then stands for cuit à la vapeur).
Veau (m) veal.
Velouté (m) a smooth and velvety soup.
Vergeoise (f) a soft brown (or light brown) sugar made from sugar beets, and a specialty from Belgium.
Verre (m) glass.
(f) a ball jar used in canning.
(f) any dish served in a jar or glass.
Viande (f) meat.
Vigneron (m) winemaker.
Vinaigre (m) vinegar.
Vinaigre balsamique (m) balsamic vinegar.
Violet (m) a type of shellfish with a soft and deeply wrinkled shell that looks like a rock covered with seaweed, and bright yellow flesh. Also called biju or patate de mer.
Volaille (f) poultry.


Yaourt (m) yogurt.
Yaourtière (f) yogurt-making appliance.


– adj : adjective
– v : verb
– f : feminine noun – use with la/une
– m : masculine noun – use with le/un
– pl : plural noun – use with les/des


2  Classic French Garnishes / Descriptions

1. Africaine :
In the African style, as practiced the French Chefs. Dishes that bear this title must convey the style of foods consumed in the vast continent of North, West, Central and East Africa and the Union of South Africa. It was, however indiscriminately applied by the French0 Chefs, to dishes during the reign of Napoleon III when Meyerbeer a opera L’Africaine enjoyed great popularity. The principal ingredients used as garnishes, giving dishes the right to bear this title are : chicken, mushroom, tomatoes, eggplant, tomatoes cooked in oil, curried and spiced foods, dishes garnished with savoury rice or flavoured with garlic or pimento and groundnuts, coconut and pistachio nuts find their way in the sweet course.
2. Ailerons :
Wing tips of chicken. Foods garnished with small wings of poultry of fins of certain types of fish. Eg. Consomme Ailerons. Chicken consommé garnished with stuffed chicken wings and cooked rice.
3. Aioli :
A provencal olive-oil cum garlic sauce. In province, the aioli is the name of the dish itself whether it be fish, vegetables or snails when served with this cold sauce.
Sauce : Garlic flavoured mayonnaise sauce with hard boiled eggs added, sprinkled with cayenne. Mashed potatoes could be used to thicken.
4. Alaska :
Formerly called Russian America, is a territory of the United States of America.
Eg. (i) Sole Alaska – Poached whole sole in white wine, half coated with a pink shrimp sauce and the other half with white wine sauce (made from fish liquor) garnished with poached oysters and noisette potatoes.
(ii) Baked Alaska is America’s famous dessert. It is frozen vanilla ice cream placed on a sponge cake base covered quickly with meringue and baked in a hot oven to brown the meringue immediately.
(iii) Cantaloupe Alaska – cut cantaloupes into 2, fill with ice cream top with meringue and browned.
5. Alexandra :
Was the consort (the queen) of Edward VII, a king of Great Britain & Ireland in whose honour many dishes were named. Indicates inclusion of Aspargus tips.
Eg. (i) Consomme Alexandra : Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca garnished with shredded chicken, lettuce and aspargus tips.
(ii) Chicken sauté Alexandra. Cook the chicken breasts in butter, mask with thin soubise sauce reduced with cream, and garnish with asparagus tips.
6. Allemande :
In the German style, dishes garnished with sauerkraut or pickled salt pork or smoked sausages.
Eg. (i) Consomme thickened with tapioca flour garnished with julienne of red cabbage and slices of smoked sausages.
(ii) Salade Allemande : Slides of apple, new potatoes, beetroot mixed with smoked herring fillets ad gherkins sprinkled with chopped parsley and vinaigrette dressing.
7. Amabassadrice :
Literally means wife of the Ambassador.
Eg. (i) Sole : Crayfish encased in rolled filets of sole. Poached and served with sauce normande.
(ii) Pudding :
A rich custard flavored with kirsch with a layer of strawberries, served with strained strawberry jam flavored with kirsch.
8. Americaine : In the American style as practiced by French chefs. A garniture for fish with slices of lobster tail and truffles.
Sauce : Tomato sauce, enrich with cream, blended with pounded coral butter and tail meat. Reduce with rich fish stock.
Bombe : Ice cream bombe lined with strawberry ice cream flavored with grenadine, alternated with pistachio ice cream.
Salade : Sliced potatoes, tomatoes, celery, rings of onions, sliced hard boiled eggs with a French dressing.
9. Andalouse :
In the Andalusian style. A Spanish province. Chicken consommé garnished with diced tomatoes, cucumber and cooked vermicelli. A cold sauce – Mayonnaise, tomato puree mixed with finely chopped brunoise of capsicum.
10. Anglaise :
In the English style as prepared by French Chefs. It indicates a “Plainly prepared” dish.

Garniture for chicken : Mixed vegetable (carrots, French beans, turnips, potatoes, cauliflower) cooked, in salted water.
Cotelettes de veau : Grilled breaded cutlets garnished with par boiled potatoes fried in butter.
11. Anna :
The first name of Anna Amelia Duchesse of Saxony, bon 24th October 1739, Chiefly applied to a certain manner of cooking potatoes invented by Chef Duglere who was Chef yet Cam D’ anglaise in Paris, in pre-war days.

Potatoes : Peeled, sliced thinly, arranged in a shall mould with melted butter and seasoning. Baked in oven to golden yellow.
12. Argentuil :
Name of a district in France famous a for its asparagus.

Potage : Asparagus soup thickened with rice and garnished with asparagus points.
Chicken : Large flat fillet, poached and coated with preme sauce to which aspargus puree has been added. Garnished with asparagus tips.
13. Au Bleu :
Meats cooked fresh and simply soon after killing, Truite au bleu Trout brought to the kitchen alive stunned and gutted just before cooking in water and white wine. Flavored with herbs and vinegar served with parsley, potatoes, Hollandaise sauce or melted butter.

14. Aurore : Dawn, break of day. The Roman Goddess of Dawn (Aurore). Consomme of veal stock with tomato puree added garnished with diced chicken.
Sauce :
Bechamel sauce flavoured with tarragon and lightly coloured with tomato puree or lobster butter in case of fish.

Oeufs : Julienne of had oiled eggs in Allemande sauce with grated cheese browned under the grill.
Fruits : Cold desserts, made from fruits in season on strawberry ice cream with a Zabaiene (Sabayon) sauce flavoured with curacoo.
15. Baba :
Turkish for father. It is generally acknowledged that the invention of the cake Baba au rhum belongs to King Stanishlaus of Russia. The king used to reed tales of a 100 nights and has named this after one of his favorite heroes Alibaba.

Babaau Rhum :
A light yeast dough batter, sweetened and enriched with butter and eggs. While hot it is soaked in hot sugar syrup strongly flavoured with rum, whipped cream is piped on top of the cake. Baba au Kirsch as aboveus in kirsch instead of rum.

16. Bataille : Brittle, fight, bottle array or batailey – a chateau of the Bordeaux district.
Potatoes : Cut in ½” squares and deep fried in fat.
17. Battenburg :
The name of the family of German Counts which died out about 1314. The title was revived in 1851.

Batterburg Cake :A lattice pattern of pink, yellow and chocolate Genoese sponge cake encased in rich almond paste.
18. Bavroise: A Bavarian cream, Bevarian style. Example of Bavarian creams flavoured custard using double the volume of cream (in relation to milk).
Sauce : Rich Hollandaise sauce flavoured with cray fish puree and paprika.
19. Bayonnaise :
The city in Spain was famous for its ham and pork products. It is said Mayonnaise was first spelled “Bayonnaise, Spain claims Mayonnaise as one of her culinary creations.

Cancape :
A circle of rye toast heaped with minced ham.

Poulet Saute : Young chicken fried with chopped ham stewed in brown sauce and served with boiled rice.
20. Bearnaise :
From the province of bean in the French Pyrencess.

Sauce : Bearnaiseis named by the Chef of Henry IV at St. Germain who first introduced this sauce. Yolks of eggs warmed in double boiler, with chopped shallots and herbs with butter added piece by piece until the sauce is as thick as mayonnaise, lemon juice and cayenne pepper added.
Chauteaubriand : Double fillet of beef, brushed with olive oil, broiled, garnished with watercress and carved with sauce Bearnaise.
21. Bechamel :
Marqquis de Bechamel, a courtier in the service of King Louis SiV said to have invented the Bechamel sauce.

Lobster : Diced and mixed with béchamel returned to shell and baked.
Artichokes : Boiled artichokes served with Behcamel sauce.
22. Belle Helene :
Presumably named for the opera. ‘Belle Helen’ by often back produced 1864.

Tournedoss de boeuf :
Small fillets of beef, grilled, garnished with straw potatoes, watercress and artichoke bottoms filled with sauce Bearnaise.

Desserts : Fresh fruits like pears, peaches, stewed in vanilla flavoured sugar syrup. When cold placed on ice cream and covered with rich glossy chocolate sauce garnished with whipped cream and nuts.
23. Belle Paesse :
A rich, creamy Italian cheese of milk flavour weighing 2-5 lbs each.

24. Bercy :
It is a suburb and market of Paris.

Potage : Puree offspring turnips thickened with cream and egg yolks.
Sauce : Thin, meat glaze with chopped shallots reduced in white wine and enriched with fresh butter, lemon juice and chopped parsley.
Sole : Rolled fillets offish, cooked under cover, in butter with chopped shallots, mushrooms liquor, white wine and chopped parsley masked with Bercy sauce.
25. Bigarade :
A bitter Seville orange from Spain.

Canard sausage : Wild duck served with orange salad and sauce bigarde.
Caneton : Duckling cooked underdone. The fillet is sliced and served with sauce bigarde.
Sauce : Gravy from duck, reduce with very fine shreds of orange and flavoured with orange juice and a little redcurrant jelly.
26. Bolognaise (a la) :
In the style of Bologna, a city in Italy famous for its Bogognais sausages.

Spaghetti : Cooked in salted water, strained, combined with diced/minced beef tossed in butter with minced onions moistened with veal stock, flavoured with garlic and tomato.
27. Bonne Femme :
(Good woman) – Housewife style

Potage : Thick white bean and chicken soup with julienne of vegetables (leeks) and sorrel carrots and turnips.
Sauce : Creamy white sauce made with finely chopped mushrooms and shallots, blended with butter, seasoned, thickened with cream and egg yolk and flavoured with white wine.
Sole : Poached fillets of sole, cooked with chopped shallots, mushrooms parsley, fish stock and white wine. Mask with fish veloute sauce and browned.
Poulet sauce : Young chicken sauteed with rich gravy reduced with white wine, garnish with diced bacon and button onions.
28. Bordelaise (a la) :
In the style of the city of Bordeaux.

Sauce ; Rich brown sauce reduced with red wine and chopped shallots, tarragon and parsley.
29. Boudin Noir :
Traditional grilled, blood sauce sausage for the festivities of Christmas Eve in Germany (Alcase).

30. Bouilli A Baisse :
A provencal world, indicates to boil up and then stop.

Bouillabaise – A mediterranean fish stew of several kinds of fish cut into small pieces and tossed in oil with chopped, herbs and onions moistened with white wine seasoned with saffron, tomatoes and garlic. Garnish with chopped parsley. Very popular with the fisherman on the water front in Marseillaize who prepare this for a late breakfast with the leftovers of the morning sale.
31. Bouillon (Stock) :
Broth, principally of beef.

32. Bouquetiere (a la) :
In the manner of ‘flower girls’ usually a garnish consisting of small fine vegetables dressed in small heaps around the meat.

33. Bourbon :
Name of a family of French rulers.

Consomme : Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca garnished with truffles cut into fancy shaped (hearts, diamonds, crescent etc.) and finally chopped chervil.
34. Bourguignonne (a la) :
Burgundy style : As a rule dishes in the preparation of which Burgundy wine is added.
Sauce Espagnole : Sauce flavoured with finely minced shallots, thyme, parsley, tarragon and mace. Burgundy wine is usually added.
Garniture for joint (roasts) : Button mushrooms and onions tossed in butter with small dices of lean bacon and Burgundy wine.
35. Bressane (a la) :
Style of Bresse French Provencal district famous of its fattened chicken. Poulardes des Bresse.

Crème :
Cream of Pumpkin soup, garnished with mezzanelli (Italian paste) enriched with cream.

36. Brillat – Savarin :
Noted French gastronome and author of culinary works,chiefly famous for his book. “La Physiologie du gout” (the physiology of taste). The well known light, spongy yeast cake made in ring form is named after him.

37. Brunoise :
Brunoy a district in France celebrated of its spring vegetables finely diced cooked root vegetables for a consommé garnish.

Consomme : A rich beef, consommé garnished with small diced carrots, leeks, onion, turnip, celery, all browned in a little butter, cooked in the consommé.
38. Cardinal :
The highest dignitary of the Roman catholic church, after the, Pope. A s a cardinal wears a distinctive scarlet, dress and a scarlet cap, the kitchen term stands of any dish of that colour. Usually lobster coral plays an important part in the fish dishes.

Consomme : Chicken consommé ‘flavoured with tomato puree garnished with finely cut julienne of vegetable, strips of truffles and lobster dumplings.
Lobster : Cubed Lobster mixture mixed with sauce Americaine and filled in shells, sprinkle with cheese and breadcrumbs and brown in the oven.
Sauce : Rich, white fish sauce blended with pounded lobster coral togive it a correct colour, flavoured with essence or anchovies and tarragon.
Garniture for fish : diced lobster, truffle, shrimps o prawn and caroinal sauce.
Dessert : Strawberries, peaches or pears poached in syrup and dressed on strawberry or raspberry ice cream with raspberry or strawberry sauce and sprinkled with sliced roasted almonds and little pistachio nuts.
39. Careme :
Antoin Careme (1784 – 1833) Chef to king George IV and later the Austrian Emperor Francis II and the Russian Czar Alexandra I and author of many culinary works. Many dishes are named after this most famous chef.

40. a. Carmen Sylva :
was the nom-de-plumeo Elizabeth, Queen of Romania, born 29th December 1843.

b. Star role in the opera of the same name by Bizet which was first produced in Paris at the Opera Comedie on 3rd March 1875.
Consomme : Clear beef consommé well coloured with tomato puree garnished with star shapes of pimento boiled rice and chervil.
41. Charlotte :
Charlotte mould (tall, straight sided mould) lined with over-lapping wager biscuits and filled with strawberry of raspberry cream, mixed with a little melted gelatin and cream.

42. Celestine (a la) :
The Celestines were recognized as a branch of the Benedictines, Celestine being a monk so named after Pope Celesten. Several dishes bear this name and are of an exquisite character. St. Celestine is commenmorated on 6th April each year.

Consomme : Clear broth garnished with shredded pancake and chopped herbs.
43. Chantilly :
City and district of France, famous for its rich cream and fine green peas.

Sauce : (a) Hot, rich béchamel sauce blended with lightly whipped cream (b) Cold mayonnaisesauce : blended with whipped cream, flavoured with lemon juice.
44. Charcutiers :
In the manner of pork butche’s style.

Sauce : Demiglaze mixed with chopped onions julienne of gherkins reduced with white wine and mustard to finish.
45. Chartreuse :
The conventknown as La Grande Chartereuse near Grenole, France form seat of the Carthusian monks. These monks who were strict vegetarians invented a vegetable composition (liqueur) usually made and cooked in moulds in a very elaborate way. When the monks were driven from France they given this title including Chartreuses of meat, game, poultry etc. Strictly speaking however all dishes bearing the name chartreuse should have the vegetarian liqueur. It is a sweet liqueur originally made in Spain. The secret of the recipe is closely guarded.

Colours – yellow and green
46. Chasseur :
A chaser, a hunter a style from the famous chasseurs of light infantry of cavalry

Sauce : Demi glace and tomato regiments who hunted for their food in forest or on mountain heights.
Consomme ; A rich clear game soup garnished with game quenelles made from as many varieties of game as possible.
Sauce : Minced shallots and mushrooms sauted and reduced with white wine and demi-glace, chopped parsley.
Poulet sauté : Chicken sauteand finished in a casserole in the oven with tomatoes, brown chicken sauce, sliced mushroom, chopped shallots and sprinkled with chopped parsley.
47. Chateau :
Castle, feudal fortress, stronghold; also wine growing establishments with vineyards. Chateau potatoes are quartered potatoes with all sharp corners rounded off; cooked a few minutes in butter in a sauté pan and then roasted in an oven used extensively to garnish roast.

48. Chateaubriant :
Vicomte Francois Auguste Chateaubriand was born at St. Malo on14.09.1763, died 04th July 1848. French author and a great gourmet. The favouritedish of a double fillet steak is named afterhim. Chef Montmireil (chef to Vicomte de Chateaubriand) formed a pocket in a thick tenderloin steak to steak to stuff it with chopped shallots and bone marrow. English cooks would sandwich their rump steaks with sliced shallots. The double fillet of beef is no served in so many different ways. The original chateaubriand as invented by Chef Monmireil was slit and filled with chopped shallots tossed in pan with bone marrow to which was added meat glaze chopped chives, seasoned with cayenne and salt.

Sauce : Rich brown sauce made with well reduced stock to half glaze enriched with butter and flavoured with lemon juice, red-currant jelly, cayenne pepper and chopped parsley.
49. Chaud-Froid :
It is considered that the prototype of the chaud-froid was first introduced by the Marquis de chaufroix, who called for the cold bird to be brought back to the table in its congealed sauce and approved of it in this state.

Sauce (white) : This is a masking sauce made with well reduced veloute blended with sufficient dissolved gelatine or aspic to set the sauce when cold.
Sauce Brown : Well reduced brown meat or game sauce treated as above. Also available in red (tomato) and green(white sauce and spinach puree).
50. Chiffonade :
Chiffon means rag. Literally vegetables in rags – long shreds of vegetables (leafy vegetables such as cress, lettuce, spinach).

Consome : Clarified soup, garnished with finely shredded lettuce leaves. Spring onion heads and other such vegetables, seasoned with fresh green mint and tarragon leaves.
51. Claremont :
Consomme : Clear beef consommé garnished with fried onion rings and diced custard royale.
52. Cock-A-Leckie :
Large quantities of this famous Scottish soup were consumed at the Burns centenary festival at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham 1859.It is hard to trace the origin of this soup. Some say it originated from the days of cock fighting, the defeated cock being thrown into a pot, with leeks to give added flavour. This soup was then handed around with parts of the bird, to the spectators. Another version is that in olden times when the cock had passed its youth the last purpose it served still is a grand dish. This soup is also claimed to be originally from Wales whose emblem is the leek.

53. Colbert :
Two famous dishes – sole a la Colbert and consome a la Colbert are in constant demand. The sole is named after Charles Colbet de Croissy, famous French Diplomat while he delicious soup’s named after Jean Bapiste Colbert, statesman of France in the reign of Louis XIV. The Consomme is distinguished by being garnished with poached eggs while the sole is noted for its stuffing of Maitre d’hotel butter placed inside before being sent to the table.

Colbert sauce : rich, thin brown sauce and finely chopped herbs and lemon juice.
Sole : Whole sole carefully opened along centre and backbone removed. Egged, crumbed and fried, stuff space with Colbert butter.
54. Choron :
Alexander Etienne Choron born at Coen, France, 21st October 1771, die in Paris 29th June 1834. A French composer wholename is often confused with Chorin or Chiron.

Sauce Choron : Bearnaise sauce blended with a good concantrade of tomato puree.
55. Conde :
1. Name of some twenty villages in France
2. Also an old French family, Prince Louis de Conde
Desserts fruits, apricots, pineapple, peaches or pears, poached in syrup, and dressed on a bed of creamed rice, coated appropriate fruit sauce and decorated with preserved cherries angelica served hot o cold.
56. Crecy :
was the site of an important battle fought by Napoleon.

City and District of France, use of carrots.
Puree : of young carrots thickened with barley.
Consomme ; Rich beef consommé garnished with julienne of carrots.
57. Cider : Juice of apple both fermented and unfermented. The flavour and general quality of all types of cider depend on fruit and skin used in preparation. Hard cider is that which has been fermented until the sugars are changed t alcohol. It is a fermented drink with apple base, it is refreshing and less alcoholic than wine. Special apples are used – sweet acid, tart, A good syrup is made with 1/3rd sweet and 2/3rd sour and acid apples.
58. Claret : The name of the fine red wines of Bordeaux. The excellence of claret and the reason why it may rightly claim precedence overall other red wines, it that it is the most harmonious and natural of all.
59. Dame Blanche
1. French white Bordeaux wine
2. “White Lady” A comic opera
3. Dame is the English legal designation of the wife or widow of a Baronet or knight.
Onely dishes white in colour should bear this name Bombe Lined outside with vanilla ice cream and inside filled with almond paste, garnished with whipped vanilla cream and spun sugar.
Consomme : Chicken consommé garnished with diced chicken breast and almond flavoured royale.
Crème : Chicken veloute garnished with sago and diced breast of chicken.
60. Daube : Ancient term for a provencal dish of raised meat or poultry. A “pot roast” of a meat stew, braised en daube i.e. in a stew pot more or less hermetically sealed.
The old way was to seal the edges of lid of the pot with a stiff dough of flour and water which when baked was discarded.
Daubiere : A special stewpan in which meat en daube is cooked.
61. Dauphine : The part of France which comprised the duchy of the Kings’ eldest sons when France was a kingdom, especially under the Valois and Bourbon families.
Consomme ; Chicken consommé with a garnish of asparagus tips, tarragon leaves and royale cut in fancy shapes.
Potatoes : Duchesse potatoes mixture mixed choux paste, shaped in walnut sized balls deep fried.
62. Dauphinoise : Foods sprinkled with grated swiss cheese and butter and baked brown.
63. Diable A La : Devil-devilled, a slightly spicy dish, sharp highly seasoned accompanied by sauce diable.
Diablotins : Small dumplings, strongly spiced mixed with grated cheese, broiled browned under-trill. Appetizers or soup garnish.
Sauce : Chopped shallots sauté, reduce in vinegar, plus demi-glace red wine, Worcestershire sauce and Cayenne pepper.
64. Diana : Roman goddess of the moon and hunting, identified with bows and arrows and crescents. Any game preparation garnished with crescent shaped croutes.
65. Dippoise (a la) : In the style of Dieppe, a coastal city of northern France, seafood style.
Crème : Rich fish veloute, garnished with shrimp tails, mussels, sliced mushrooms finished with cream. Garnish of Shrimp tails, mussels and mushrooms rich fish veloute sauce.
66. Forestierre :
Poulet sauté forestierre : Chicken jointed and sautéed in butter, add sliced mushrooms, diced shallots and swill the pan with white wine and all reduced meat glaze coat with the sauce and garnish with rolls of grilled bacon and parmentier potatoes.
67. A La Francaise : French style- term applied to a number of French dishes cooked and prepared in a simple manner and chiefly denotes a style of the district in which the chef of cook originally lived.
(a) Sole a la franciase
68. France : The art of French hospitality was introduced in France by Catherine de Medict during the early 16th century. This art was soon developed by the French cooks whose imaginative and creative ability brought about improvements upon the Italians heavier way of preparing dishes. Most of the French dishes bore the name of either a saint, some mythical God or some Italian event or celebrity and these show marked evidence of having been created in some other country than France. Gradually even actresses, actors singers and poets have all been honoured by great French chef for eg. Dame Nelli Melba has her name perpetuated for all time by that still popular dish peches Melba.
69. Garibaldi
1. Famous Italian patriot born at Nice, 4th July 1807 died at Caperia 2nd June, 1882.
2. Guisieppe Garibaldi an Italian General of world war I, born at Melbourne, 29th July, 1879. Grandson of Italian Patriot.
70. Genoise : Pertaining to Genoa an Italian city. In the style of Genoa as practiced by French cooks. It was the name of a sauce served only with fish coated in court boil lion (Salmon and salmon trout in particular). In confectionery, cakes made from a genoise mixture are called “Genoise Sponge”.
71. Gree (a la Greque) : Greem, in the Greek style as practiced by French cooks, dishes a la grecque should be of Greek origin in the method of preparation but in practice this is seldom the case though it sometimes happens that a dish called a la grecque on a restaurant menu is really of Greek origin. More often than not the name is given to dishes of French origin. Eg. Potage a la Grecque – puree of peas cooked in mutton broth garnished with vegs cut julienne style.
72. Germany : Many of the favourite foods are of German origin specially Frankfurters and Hamburgers. The Germans are fond of cooking many foods “Sweet and Sour” a combination of fruit sugar, spices, Lemon and sometimes raisins often given the desired sweet and sour flavour.
German cooks are meticulous and often following their own methods in preparing and cooking traditional dishes of their country. To Germany we owe a way of treating vegs (especially cabbage) which makes them palatable and tasty.
73. Gloucester :
1. Name of along line of Earls and Dukes dating back, to 1121. It would be correct to features dishes so named on the birthday of the present Duke.
2. A city, port and country town, Gloucestershire, England
Eg’s. Sauce Gloucester : Mayonnaise sauce mixed with sour cream, chopped tarragon and flaovured with chilly vinegar, mustard.
Gloucester Royal pie – This was a pie made in olden times of campreys court in severn. These pies were richly decorate with banners bearing the gloucester court of aims.
74. Grimaldi :
1. Giovanni Francesco, Italian architect painter and engraver, born at Bolgna, 18th September 1606.
2. Joseph Grimaldi, noted actor, born 18th December 1779.
Consomme Grimaldi – clear beef broth, flavoured with tomato and garnished with celeriac cut julienne style.
Sole grimaldi – Rolled or folded fillets poached and dressed in a casserole on abed of cooked sphagetti coats nantua sauce and topped with sliced truffle.
75. Haggis : Haggis may be regarded as the National dish of Scotland when this dish is served at certain large banquets in Scotland, it is accompanied by an escort of pipers when paying homage to their national poet Robert Burns, the Scots have Haggis presented and served with due pomp and ceremony. It is carried into room by a servant who is proceeded by a piper and it is customary to drink whiskey, whilst eating. The dish consists of the thymus gland stuffed with a mixture of stuffed offals and coats and then baked.
76. Hamburger : In early part of eighteenth century. France obtained its best beef from Triesianplains via Hamburg, a sea port of Germany. Theanimals were driven in herds over the roads of Europe. The delicious hamburger steaks have become world famous. Eg’s
Maburger steaks : Finally minced beef steak seasoned with salt pepper, nutmeg mixed with raw egg, shaped like a noisette floured and fried in butter, garnished with fried onion and fried egg placed on top.
77. A la Hollandiase : In the style of Netherlands as practiced by French cooks Dutch style. Dutch cookery is closely related to that of Belgium and not Germany. Being a country of rich pasture land, there is an abundance of high quality dairy products specially cheese, which represents one of the countries largest exports. Holland is a country equally devoted to stock farming and fishing, so the Dutch table features a wide variety of characteristics and salted and smoked fish Herring is the staple food of Dutch people.
78. Hongroise : Hungarian, in the Hungarian style as practiced by French Chefs. Dishes prepared a la Hongroise are cooked in a cream sauce seasoned with paprika.
1. Entrecote a la Hongrois – beef steak cooked in butter coated with Hongrois sauce (veloute sauce blended with sour cream and white wine seasoned well with paptrika) and garnish of bacon.
79. Indienne a la : Indian style as practiced by French cooks a Croquettes a l’ indienne : Lobster and rice, seasoned with curry power shaped into croquettes fried and served with curry sauce.
Potage a l’indienne – Mullagutwany soup with addition of coconut milk and well washed cooked rice.
80. Italienne : Italian – Italianmanner as practiced by French cooks – A name given to various dishes made to meat, poultry, fishes contain finely chopped mushroom. The name a italianne is also given to method of preparing maccroni or either pastas.
Italian cuisine is one of the oldest in Europe. It is derived from Greek Gourmet tradition, these being derived in their turn from oriental cuisine. Choose any ordinary Italian dish and it is the replica of one that was once enjoyed by gourmands reclining on their balconies in ancient Rome.
Italian Polenta is the same as the pulse that the Romans prepared en route when they set out of conquer the world. They toasted grains of wheat, crushed them and made a gruel from the result the only difference is the polenta is now made from coarse maize flour. Italian cuisine is considered the mother of all European cuisine.
81. Jardineters : Garden a style with a variety of vegs. Name given to a garnish made of fresh vegs – carrots and turnips (shaped with a plain or flutted, ball scoop, cut with a hallow tubular cutter or diced) green peas, small kidney beans, French beans diced or cut into lozenges, cauliflower etc. The vegs are cooked separately, some boiled, others glazed. They are arranged around the main dish in separate groups. This garnish is served with roast, stewed or braised meats and pot roasted poultry.
Consomme Jardiniere – clear soup garnished with a variety of cooked garden veg’s.
82. Julienne : Jean Julich was a noted French Chef who first made a clear vegetable soup in 1785 with vegs cut into strips. The name is now applied to all vegs garnishes cut in this manner.
83. Lasagne : Ribbon maccroni, an Italian pasta prepared in any of the ways as given for macaroni and noodles. Lasagne Lisci and Lasagne Ricci are Lasagne with both sides grooved in waves. The above names are given to soups containing these pastes as a garnish. Now flavoured with spinach (green) tomato (red/pink) and squid ink (black) lending a wise variety.
84. Lorette : A parasian woman of the better class, a glamorous woman. Potatoes : mashed and creamed, mixed with choux pastry, moulded into crescents and fried in deep fat.
85. Lourraine : Province of Alasca – Iorraine
District of high gastronomic repute. Here the connoisseur of good cooking will savour many succulent dishes and will find white, rose and red wines all delightful. Though some are more fragnant than others, the dishes or lorraine are for the most part substantial, heading the list of culinary specialties of what was once an ancient province.
86. Lyonnaise : Lyons, city of France, in the style of or pertaining to Lyons. The Lyonnaise district has an abundance of good quality potatoes as well as excellent onions such as those of Roanne which are used in the preparation of a large number of special dishes.
87. Maltaise : Pertaining to the Island of Malta.
Potage Maltaise – A thin veal soup with a garnish 3 diced oranges a little shredded capsicum, chillies and 2 oz of very smalljulienne of orange peel.
Ris-de Veau Lamtaise – Braised with Bearnoise sauce decorated with Maltaise cross in forece meat sauce maltaise + Hollandaise + (blood) orange juice.
88. Mandarine : The French form of Mandarin is a small orange from which a liqueur is made Glace Mandarin – Fill the shells of Mandarin oranges with oranges ice topped with meringue and baked quickly.
89. Marengo : North Italian village where the famous battle of Marengo took place on 14th June 1820 between Napolean Bonaparte and the Austrians which victory was perpetuated by Chef by his creation of a chicken dish on the battle field itself : poultry sauté Marengo.
90. Marnite : Stock pot, metal or earthernware, covered pot with or with out feet depending on whether it is used for cooking in the hearth or on the stove.
Petit marnite – Name of a clear savoury broth, a type of hot pot cooked and served in an earthernware pot. This broth was invented in Paris and is much prized by gourmete.
91. Maryland : One of the original 13 stages of USA famous for its culinary creations. Chicken Maryland – crumb fried joints, garnished with corn fritters. Bacon rashers, grilled tomato and fried bananas.
92. Mayonnaise : Speculation says that this sauce was invented by chef to the Duke Richelieu after the victory of MaHON (Mahonnaise). Others are convinced that Spain should be given credit for its origins. Mayonnaise is probably a corruption of moyeinoise derived from the old French world Moyeu which means egg yolk. Basically it is a cold sauce with the basic ingredients of
93. Melba : Dame Nili, Melba a British Operatic Soprano. Her real name was Helen Porter Mitchell. She adopted the stage name Melba as she was a native of Melbourne Australia.
94. Meringue : Small patisserie made from eggs white and sugar. It is said that the dish was invented in 1720 by a Swiss pastry cook called Gasparine who practiced his art in meringham a small town in the state of Saxe-Coburg. Up to the beginning of the 19th Century meringque’s were shaped in a spoon as the pastry forcing bag had not yet been invented.
95. Meuniere : Miller,Miller’s wife style – Method of cooking fish which is seasoned lightly, floured and fried in butter. To serve, squeeze a few drops of lemon juice, cover it. Sprinkle with parsley and pour on the cooking butter piping hot eg. Sole meuniere.
96. Maxicaine : Pertaining to the Republic of Mexico in the Mexican style as prepared by French Chefs.
Potage Mexican – Puree of tomato soup with seaonsed consommé.
Poulet sauté Mexicaine : Mushrooms, capsicum tomato (garnish).
97. Mignonette : Small & delicate
Potatoes – Cut thicker than match potatoes (alumettes) and cook the same way.
98. Milanaise: In the style of Milan, an Italian city. The usual garnish is spaghetti with shredded tongue, truffles, mushrooms blended with a puree of tomato and sprinkled with grated cheese (parmesan). Breaded meats have grated cheese mixed with bread crumbs and are served with tomato sauce. Eg’s
1. Choufleru milanaise – cooked buds of cauliflower sautes in butter, sprinkled with grated cheese, buttered and baked.
2. Souffle milanaise : Lemon flavoured soufflé, coated with biscuit crumbs and spiked with pistachio nuts.
99. Mills Feuille : “Thousand Leaves” puff paste – a pastry very much in vogue in Paris. It is made by arranging thin layers of flaky pastry one on top of the other with layers of cream or some other rilling in between. Mille feuille can be baked in the form of a large sweet decorated in various ways or as in Paris Patisseries in small individual portions by cutting the flaky pastry in pieces 5 cm wide and laying them one on top of the other sandwich as mentioned before.
100. Minute : 60 seconds – something small or short a la minute hurriedly prepared sole and other such fish when filleted are cooked muniere style.
Minute Tenerloins – These are 4-5 oz size, cut thin and sauté with minced shallots and herbs. Pommes minute : small dice fried.
101. Mirepoix : Due de’French Noble Family. Foundation ingredients of most brown soups, sauce and the first step in braising, being the preparation of the fat, vegetables, herbs etc. saute to gain a brown colour.
102. Normony :
1. Philip De Plessis Mornay, French Protestant, born 5th November, 1549.
2. Name given to a rich creamy sauce loaded with Parmesan Chesses.
Sole Mornay – Poached and coated with Mornay sauce glazed.
103. Nantua : A town in France –
Sauce : Bechamel reduced with rich fish fumet, finished with crayfish or prawn butter.
Garniture for fish – Crayfish (or prawn) tails with nantua and slices of truffle.
Omelet – filled with chicken and truffle salpicon sauce nantua.
104. Napolitaine : In the stule of Naples city of Southern Italy often applied to dishes containing 3 distinct colours.
Consomme : Clear game soup garnished with shreds of ham and celery and a generous amount of macaroni.
Sauce : Brown sauce reduced with clearet and red current jelly with minced ham shallots grated horseradish flavoured with bayleaf, cloves and thyme.
Glace – Ice cream layered in 3 distinct colours and flavoures in oblong moulds and cut into oblong slices.
105. Navarin : Pertaining to the great town of Navarine in Italy the scene of a battle on 20th October, 1827.
Navarin Printanier – A rich brown lamb or mutton stew with carrots, turnips and potatoes.
106. Nicoise : In the style of Nice, city of Southern France.
Consomme – Consomme vermicelli and peeled tomatoes cut in small squares. Bring to boil, sere grated cheese separately.
Garniture for fish – chopped tomatoes sauté with garlic, lemon slices and anchovy fillets topped with capers.
Salad – French beans, tomatoes, potatoes, olives and anchovy.
107. Noisette : Hazelnut also term, applied to small, round boneless, fatless piece of meat such as small loins of lamb, rolled, thin cuts into dainty rounds.
a. Butter – clarified butter browned hazelnut colour.
b. Sauce – supreme sauce, noisitle butter, pounded hazelnut.
c. Potatoes – small hazelnut sized potatoes sauted in butter or fried in deep fat to golden yellow.
108. Normande : In the style of Normany, north western province of France, Chief characteristics of fish dishes being mussles, oysters and shrimps with apples features in most meat, poultry and game recipes.
Sauce : White sauce finished with egg yolks and butter flavoured with lemon juice reduced cream.
Potatoes : Sliced, cooked in casserole with milk, onions and leeks browned on top under a grill.
109. Orientale : Pertaining in to the Oriental, Eastern style.
Consomme : Carrots and turnips shaped like half moons, boiled, served hot in consommé with plain boiled rice.
Sauce : Americaine, diced onion sauté lightly flavoured curry.
110. Orly : Bernard Van Orly noted Flemmesh painter. Fish or meat coated with rich egg batter, fried in deep fat and usually served with tangy tomato sauce.
Sauce : Rich white sauce blended with meat extract and loaded with tomato puree.
111. Paloise : Pertaining to palus, the low lying vineyards of Gironde is France producing the cheaper types of claret.
Sauce – Bearnaise sauce with an infusion of fresh mint.
112. Parisienne : In the style of Paris, dishes usually dressed elaborately.
a. Consomme –Garnish of white vegetables white leeks and custard royale.
b. Sauce – Rich brown sauce with chopped parsley and shallots, amdeira and meet glaze with fresh butter fines herbs.
Chicken sauté – Jointed chicken sauted in butter, season when done, cooked in tomato sauce with fresh sliced mushrooms for 2 minutes. Serve chicken dressed on a platter cover with sauce and garnish with macaroni in cream.
113. Parmentier : Antoine August in (1737-1813) French agriculturist, writer and food expert. I n1786 he introduced the potato to France and created many styles of cooking this tuber.
Potatoes : Cut into large dice blanch and cook in casserole with butter and chopped parsley.
114. Parmesan : Cheese made in parma, Italy from cow’s milk, very hard used as a garnish for most Italian past dishes, soups and chicken for which it is a proper partner.
115. Paysanne : In the peasant style, farmer’s wife style. Usually dishes prepare din a pot or casserole with onions, salt, pork and artichoke bottoms.
Potatoes – Sliced smothered and chopped onions sorrel and chervil baked in the oven with pork dripping.
116. Perigourdine/A la Perigourd : Pertaining to Perigold – dishes finished with truffles from that district.
Sauce Perigourdine – Demiglace with foie grass puree garnished with slices of truffles.
117. Poivrade : A piquant pepper sauce
Sauce : A brown pepper sauce flavoured with ham, onions, celery, bayleaf, thyme reduced with vinegar and black pepper.
118. Polonaise : Polish style as practiced by French chefs.
Sauce : Veloute with sour cream, chopped fennel lemon juice and grated horse radish.
119. Pomadour : Jeans Antoinette Poisson le Normand d’Etrores Marquis de Paapadour, Mistress of Louis XV of France, born 29th December 1721 had a great influence in the politics of France.
Consomme – Chicken consommé garnished with turnips and carrots, pink, green and plain royale, fancily cut.
Salad – Sprigs of cooked cauliflower, sliced potatoes, celeriac, seasoned with celery, salt.
120. Porterhouse : Porterhouse steak – a thick steak cut from the middle of the ribs of beef ½” – 2” thick.
121. Portugaise
Consomme – rich clear beef soup with stored and halved prunes, diced ripe tomatoes, strips of leeks.
Sauce – Tomato sauce reduced with rich veal gravy flavoured with garlic and onion and chopped parsley.
122. Poulette – Name of a very popular velvet like sauce made with an egg liaison.
Sauce – rich white sauce flavoured with herbs thickened with egg yolks and fresh butter, finished with lemon juice and chopped parsley.
123. Prince, Princesse, Princiers (Prince, Princess, Princely)
Consomme – clear chicken broth garnished with diced chicken and asparagus points.
Sauce : White fish sauce, enriched with cray fish, butter finely shredded cray fish and truffles.
124. Printanier a la Printaniere, printeemps : Springs like spring, spring time.
Potage Printanier – soup made of spring vegetable.
Consomme – a clear soup garnished with spring vegetables which may be ball shaped or cut finely.
Sauce – rich veloute and puree of green vegetables with finely cubed green vegetables.
125. Provencale : of province, formerly maritime province of France. A la Provencale in the style of that region usually empires that garlic, olive oil have been used.
Sauce – Demiglace with tomato puree finely chopped fried mushrooms, onions, parsley, olives, garlic and lemon juice.
126. Ratafia : The word is believed to stem from malay Tafia, a spirit or liqueur made from cane sugar. This has taken on certain occasions to ratify a treaty or agreement. The drink is now a light liqueur with a slightly bitter almond flavour.
127. Ravigote, Ravigoter : To revive, refresh
Sauce (hot) a white sauce flavoured and fine herbs reduced with white wine and vinegar and finished with butter and cream.
Sauce (cold) a spicy mayonnaise coloured green with spinach puree, mixed with finely chopped chives parsley andtarragon.
128. Reforme : After the style of the famous London Reform Club where Alexis Soyer was the Chef. Garniture for cutlets and entrees – Julienne of ham, tongue, truffles, boiled white of egg, mushrooms, carrots and beet root and gherkins Reform Sauce.
Sauce : Poivrade sauce diluted with port wine and red currant jelly.
129. Richelieu ; Cardinal Armand Jean du Pressis de Bonn in Paris
Consomme – Beef consommé garnished chicken guenelles, julienne of carrots and turnips with shredded chervil.
Sauce – Rich brown sauce with Madeira wine and meat extract.
130. Rrisotoo : Italian rice, fried, moistened with broth. Seasoned steamed in covered pan without stirring. White wine, butter and grated cheese are then added.
131. Robert :
1. Name of one of the earliest kings of France.
2. King of Naples, sons of Charles II
Sauce – Rich brown sauce and chopped sautéed onions reduced with chilli vinegar, red wine and prepared mustard, spicy and pungent.
Potatoes – Sliced and stewed in Robert sauce or baked, scooped out pulp flavoured with chives shaped into patties and shallow fried.
132. Romaine : In the manner pertaining to Rome.
Potage – Chicken stock, rice, onions carrots, celery, cream
133. Roquefort : French cheese made from ewe’s milk which has attained a world wide reputation. The green mottling develops around bread crumbs that are used in preparing it.
134. Rossini : Groaechine Antonio Famous Italian Opera composer born at Pasio, friend of cooks and maitre de hotel in the cosmopolitan restaurants of Europe.
Tournedos and Filets Migonons –
Italian method – Saute in butter, placed on a lightly fried slice of bread and garnished with asparagus tips, braised white (Italian) truffles and small grilled tomatoes. Surround with demi glace.
French Method – The boiled tenderloin is topped with sliced fois gras tossed in butter, mashed with Madeira sauce.
135. Royal, Royale, a la Royale – Egla – Kindly styles :
Custard Royal – seasoned eggs with milk or consommé steamed, cut into cubes may be flavoured with/or covered variously with puree of vegetables, poultry or game.
Consomme – Beef consommé garnish with plain royale custard.
136. Russia – Russians were real gourmet. They know how to eat and how to prepare a dish that was lay was delicious to the palette. Their Zakouski is a somewhat elaborate overturn in a meal. The famous Russian cavier is relished on the French table.
Bortsch – Beef soup cooked with red beets, onions, celery, cabbage, potatoes and carrots. Serve sour cream.
Blini – Pancakes made of buckwheat flour served with smoked sturgeon or salmon and caviare, sour cream and malted butter. Shashlik Moscow – Loin of pork pickled and broiled on a spi before an open fire served with cooked or raw vegetables.
Baklava – Original pastry dough made of dough, honey, nuts and butter.
Russian Rum Babha – a delicious cake flavoured with salt, sugar, spiced with cinnamon and cooked in rum.
137. Sabayon : An Italian wine cream or egg punch served as a dessert sweet in glasses and eaten with a spoon.
138. St. Germaine : Suburb of Paris when a castle was built by Louis VI, Treaty of St. Germaine – was signed here.
139. Soubise – Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, peer and marshal of France.
Sauce – A rich creamy sauce blended with onion puree seasoned with sugar, salt, pepper, nutmeg.
140. Spain – Spanish food is highly flavoured and colourful with the use of pimentos and tomatoes. Spaniards claim to have first made mayonnaise and sauce Espagnole. A characteristics feature of Spanish cooking is a mixture of a number of ingredients in one dish. Most of their cooking is done in oil as butter is expensive.
141. Stanley – Sir Homry morton/famous British explorer of Africa.
Sauce – Rich cream sauce with grated horseradish and curry poweder.
142. Strudel : A Viennese dessert speciality of water thin dough in roll form with chopped apples, pistachios, raisins, sugar lemon rind, cinnamon.
143. Supreme
1. Highest best quality
2. The best parts of poultry breast of chicken
Sauce – Rich white velvet sauce made from well clear chicken broth enriched with cream.
Lobster – diced lobster mixed with chopped olives, hard boiled eggs, capers, French dressing, chilled and served on a bed of crisp lettuce, surround alternately with slices of cucumber and tomato, garnish with lobster claws.
144. Suzettee : Said to be the name of the lady friend of a V.I.P. at the end of the 19th Century during whose visit to a humble. Parisian cabaret, the crepes suzette were created in her honour by Chef Henry Charpentier.
Crepes – Thin pancake doused in a thick sauce of orange juice, lemon juice, butter, sugar flavoured with rind and orange liqueur flambed with brandy and served hot.
145. Thermidor : Name given during the French Revolution to the 11th month of the year in the Republican calendar.
146. Tutti Frutti : An Italian term used in connection with ice cream where various kinds of candied fruit are used.
147. Tyrolienne : In the manner of Tyrol an Austrian province in the Alps.
Sauce (cold) – Tomatoed mayonnaise sauce.
Sauce (hot) – Rich hollandaise with tomato puree.
148. Verdi : Guissepppe Fortino Francesso – famous Italian operative composer and singer. Born in 1813.
Sole – Folded fillets, poached in wine, dressed on cooked macaroni mixed with shreds of truffle and lobster coated with cheese sauce and glazed.
149. Veronique : French form of veronica, characterized by use of seedless, grapes.
Sole : Rolled, poached fillets dressed with 3-4 grapes (peeled and pipped) on each and coated with a blend of sauce hollandaise and sauce Vin Blanc.
150. Vert-Pre : Green meadow – dishes served with fresh green vegetables. Garnish for chicken consommé. Green peas, asparagus tips, frenchbeans, lettuce, chervil, S. Chicory.
151. Vichy :City of France noted spa Vichy Celestine is practically flavourless and may be used as table water.
Potage – Puree of red carrots with cream liaison.
Carrots – Grazed with butter, sugar, salt, parsley, in Vichy water.
152. Virginia : Southern state of U.S.A. noted for its food.
Ham – A fine ham, flat, lean of the ‘rapos’ back pig peanut fed, chicory smoked.
Chicken – Saute filets in butter moisten with cream braise to finish. Serve on a slice of Virginia ham, sauté and corn fritters garnish.
153. Waldorf : One of New York’s famous hotel. The Waldorf Astoria, the old Waldorf having being named after the village of Waldorf near Heidelberg, Germany.


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